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Vitaly Bergelson, Tamar Ziegler, and I have just uploaded to the arXiv our paper “An inverse theorem for the uniformity seminorms associated with the action of “. This paper establishes the ergodic inverse theorems that are needed in our other recent paper to establish the inverse conjecture for the Gowers norms over finite fields in high characteristic (and to establish a partial result in low characteristic), as follows:
Theorem. Let be a finite field of characteristic p. Suppose that is a probability space with an ergodic measure-preserving action of . Let be such that the Gowers-Host-Kra seminorm (defined in a previous post) is non-zero.
- In the high-characteristic case , there exists a phase polynomial g of degree <k (as defined in the previous post) such that .
- In general characteristic, there exists a phase polynomial of degree <C(k) for some C(k) depending only on k such that .
This theorem is closely analogous to a similar theorem of Host and Kra on ergodic actions of , in which the role of phase polynomials is played by functions that arise from nilsystem factors of X. Indeed, our arguments rely heavily on the machinery of Host and Kra.
The paper is rather technical (60+ pages!) and difficult to describe in detail here, but I will try to sketch out (in very broad brush strokes) what the key steps in the proof of part 2 of the theorem are. (Part 1 is similar but requires a more delicate analysis at various stages, keeping more careful track of the degrees of various polynomials.)