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About six years ago on this blog, I started thinking about trying to make a web-based game based around high-school algebra, and ended up using Scratch to write a short but playable puzzle game in which one solves linear equations for an unknown {x} using a restricted set of moves. (At almost the same time, there were a number of more professionally made games released along similar lines, most notably Dragonbox.)

Since then, I have thought a couple times about whether there were other parts of mathematics which could be gamified in a similar fashion. Shortly after my first blog posts on this topic, I experimented with a similar gamification of Lewis Carroll’s classic list of logic puzzles, but the results were quite clunky, and I was never satisfied with the results.

Over the last few weeks I returned to this topic though, thinking in particular about how to gamify the rules of inference of propositional logic, in a manner that at least vaguely resembles how mathematicians actually go about making logical arguments (e.g., splitting into cases, arguing by contradiction, using previous result as lemmas to help with subsequent ones, and so forth). The rules of inference are a list of a dozen or so deductive rules concerning propositional sentences (things like “({A} AND {B}) OR (NOT {C})”, where {A,B,C} are some formulas). A typical such rule is Modus Ponens: if the sentence {A} is known to be true, and the implication “{A} IMPLIES {B}” is also known to be true, then one can deduce that {B} is also true. Furthermore, in this deductive calculus it is possible to temporarily introduce some unproven statements as an assumption, only to discharge them later. In particular, we have the deduction theorem: if, after making an assumption {A}, one is able to derive the statement {B}, then one can conclude that the implication “{A} IMPLIES {B}” is true without any further assumption.

It took a while for me to come up with a workable game-like graphical interface for all of this, but I finally managed to set one up, now using Javascript instead of Scratch (which would be hopelessly inadequate for this task); indeed, part of the motivation of this project was to finally learn how to program in Javascript, which turned out to be not as formidable as I had feared (certainly having experience with other C-like languages like C++, Java, or lua, as well as some prior knowledge of HTML, was very helpful). The main code for this project is available here. Using this code, I have created an interactive textbook in the style of a computer game, which I have titled “QED”. This text contains thirty-odd exercises arranged in twelve sections that function as game “levels”, in which one has to use a given set of rules of inference, together with a given set of hypotheses, to reach a desired conclusion. The set of available rules increases as one advances through the text; in particular, each new section gives one or more rules, and additionally each exercise one solves automatically becomes a new deduction rule one can exploit in later levels, much as lemmas and propositions are used in actual mathematics to prove more difficult theorems. The text automatically tries to match available deduction rules to the sentences one clicks on or drags, to try to minimise the amount of manual input one needs to actually make a deduction.

Most of one’s proof activity takes place in a “root environment” of statements that are known to be true (under the given hypothesis), but for more advanced exercises one has to also work in sub-environments in which additional assumptions are made. I found the graphical metaphor of nested boxes to be useful to depict this tree of sub-environments, and it seems to combine well with the drag-and-drop interface.

The text also logs one’s moves in a more traditional proof format, which shows how the mechanics of the game correspond to a traditional mathematical argument. My hope is that this will give students a way to understand the underlying concept of forming a proof in a manner that is more difficult to achieve using traditional, non-interactive textbooks.

I have tried to organise the exercises in a game-like progression in which one first works with easy levels that train the player on a small number of moves, and then introduce more advanced moves one at a time. As such, the order in which the rules of inference are introduced is a little idiosyncratic. The most powerful rule (the law of the excluded middle, which is what separates classical logic from intuitionistic logic) is saved for the final section of the text.

Anyway, I am now satisfied enough with the state of the code and the interactive text that I am willing to make both available (and open source; I selected a CC-BY licence for both), and would be happy to receive feedback on any aspect of the either. In principle one could extend the game mechanics to other mathematical topics than the propositional calculus – the rules of inference for first-order logic being an obvious next candidate – but it seems to make sense to focus just on propositional logic for now.

I’ve just finished the first draft of my book “Expansion in finite simple groups of Lie type“, which is  based in the lecture notes for my graduate course on this topic that were previously posted on this blog.  It also contains some newer material, such as the notes on Lie algebras and Lie groups that I posted most recently here.

As always, corrections or comments are greatly appreciated (and errata will be collected at this page).

I recently finished the first draft of the last of my books based on my 2011 blog posts (and also my Google buzzes and Google+ posts from that year), entitled “Spending symmetry“.    The PDF of this draft is available here.  This is again a rather  assorted (and lightly edited) collection of posts (and buzzes, and Google+ posts), though concentrating in the areas of analysis (both standard and nonstandard), logic, and geometry.   As always, comments and corrections are welcome.

I recently finished the first draft of the the first of my books, entitled “Hilbert’s fifth problem and related topics“, based on the lecture notes for my graduate course of the same name.    The PDF of this draft is available here.  As always, comments and corrections are welcome.

My graduate text on measure theory (based on these lecture notes) is now published by the AMS as part of the Graduate Studies in Mathematics series.  (See also my own blog page for this book, which among other things contains a draft copy of the book in PDF format.)

I recently finished the first draft of the last of my books based on my 2010 blog posts (and also my Google buzzes), entitled “Compactness and contradiction“.    The PDF of this draft is available here.  This is a somewhat assorted (and lightly edited) collection of posts (and buzzes), though concentrating in the areas of analysis (both standard and nonstandard), logic, and group theory.   As always, comments and corrections are welcome.

I’ve just finished writing the first draft of my third book coming out of the 2010 blog posts, namely “Higher order Fourier analysis“, which was based primarily on my graduate course in the topic, though it also contains material from some additional posts related to linear and higher order Fourier analysis on the blog.  It is available online here.  As usual, comments and corrections are welcome.  There is also a stub page for the book, which at present does not contain much more than the above link.

 

I’ve just finished writing the first draft of my second book coming out of the 2010 blog posts, namely “Topics in random matrix theory“, which was based primarily on my graduate course in the topic, though it also contains material from some additional posts related to random matrices on the blog.  It is available online here.  As usual, comments and corrections are welcome.  There is also a stub page for the book, which at present does not contain much more than the above link.

As I have done in the last three years, I am spending some time at the beginning of this year converting some of my posts on this blog into book format.  This time round, the situation is a bit different because the majority of mathematical posts last year came from three courses I have taught: random matrices, higher-order Fourier analysis, and measure theory.  These topics are sufficiently unrelated to each other, and to the other mathematical posts from 2010, that I am thinking of having as many as four distinct books this time around, though my plans are not yet definite in this regard.

In any event, I have started the process by converting the measure theory notes to book form, a draft copy of which is now available here.  I have also started up a stub of a book page for this text, though it has little content at present beyond that link.    I will be continuing to work on it in parallel with the rest of the conversion process.  As always, any comments and corrections are very welcome.

The first volume of my 2009 blog book, “An epsilon of room“, has now been published by the AMS, as part of the Graduate Studies in Mathematics series.  (So I finally have a book whose cover is at least partially in yellow, which for some reason seems to be the traditional colour for mathematics texts.) This volume contains the material from my 245B and 245C classes, and can thus be viewed as a second text in graduate real analysis.  (I plan to have one volume of the 2010 blog book to be devoted to the material for the 245A class  I just taught, and would thus serve as a first text in graduate real analysis to complement this volume.)

The second volume, which covers a wide range of other topics, should also be published in the near future.

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