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Suppose is a continuous (but nonlinear) map from one normed vector space to another . The continuity means, roughly speaking, that if are such that is small, then is also small (though the precise notion of “smallness” may depend on or , particularly if is not known to be uniformly continuous). If is known to be differentiable (in, say, the Fréchet sense), then we in fact have a linear bound of the form

for some depending on , if is small enough; one can of course make independent of (and drop the smallness condition) if is known instead to be Lipschitz continuous.

In many applications in analysis, one would like more explicit and quantitative bounds that estimate quantities like in terms of quantities like . There are a number of ways to do this. First of all, there is of course the trivial estimate arising from the triangle inequality:

This estimate is usually not very good when and are close together. However, when and are far apart, this estimate can be more or less sharp. For instance, if the magnitude of varies so much from to that is more than (say) twice that of , or vice versa, then (1) is sharp up to a multiplicative constant. Also, if is oscillatory in nature, and the distance between and exceeds the “wavelength” of the oscillation of at (or at ), then one also typically expects (1) to be close to sharp. Conversely, if does not vary much in magnitude from to , and the distance between and is less than the wavelength of any oscillation present in , one expects to be able to improve upon (1).

When is relatively simple in form, one can sometimes proceed simply by substituting . For instance, if is the squaring function in a commutative ring , one has

and thus

or in terms of the original variables one has

If the ring is not commutative, one has to modify this to

Thus, for instance, if are matrices and denotes the operator norm, one sees from the triangle inequality and the sub-multiplicativity of operator norm that

If involves (or various components of ) in several places, one can sometimes get a good estimate by “swapping” with at each of the places in turn, using a telescoping series. For instance, if we again use the squaring function in a non-commutative ring, we have

which for instance leads to a slight improvement of (2):

More generally, for any natural number , one has the identity

in a commutative ring, while in a non-commutative ring one must modify this to

and for matrices one has

Exercise 1If and are unitary matrices, show that the commutator obeys the inequality(

Hint:first control .)

Now suppose (for simplicity) that is a map between Euclidean spaces. If is continuously differentiable, then one can use the fundamental theorem of calculus to write

where is any continuously differentiable path from to . For instance, if one uses the straight line path , one has

In the one-dimensional case , this simplifies to

Among other things, this immediately implies the factor theorem for functions: if is a function for some that vanishes at some point , then factors as the product of and some function . Another basic consequence is that if is uniformly bounded in magnitude by some constant , then is Lipschitz continuous with the same constant .

Applying (4) to the power function , we obtain the identity

which can be compared with (3). Indeed, for and close to , one can use logarithms and Taylor expansion to arrive at the approximation , so (3) behaves a little like a Riemann sum approximation to (5).

Exercise 2For each , let and be random variables taking values in a measurable space , and let be a bounded measurable function.

- (i) (Lindeberg exchange identity) Show that
- (ii) (Knowles-Yin exchange identity) Show that
where is a mixture of and , with uniformly drawn from independently of each other and of the .

- (iii) Discuss the relationship between the identities in parts (i), (ii) with the identities (3), (5).
(The identity in (i) is the starting point for the

Lindeberg exchange methodin probability theory, discussed for instance in this previous post. The identity in (ii) can also be used in the Lindeberg exchange method; the terms in the right-hand side are slightly more symmetric in the indices , which can be a technical advantage in some applications; see this paper of Knowles and Yin for an instance of this.)

Exercise 3If is continuously times differentiable, establish Taylor’s theorem with remainderIf is bounded, conclude that

For real scalar functions , the average value of the continuous real-valued function must be attained at some point in the interval . We thus conclude the mean-value theorem

for some (that can depend on , , and ). This can for instance give a second proof of fact that continuously differentiable functions with bounded derivative are Lipschitz continuous. However it is worth stressing that the mean-value theorem is only available for *real scalar* functions; it is false for instance for complex scalar functions. A basic counterexample is given by the function ; there is no for which . On the other hand, as has magnitude , we still know from (4) that is Lipschitz of constant , and when combined with (1) we obtain the basic bounds

which are already very useful for many applications.

Exercise 4Let be matrices, and let be a non-negative real.

- (i) Establish the Duhamel formula
where denotes the matrix exponential of . (

Hint:Differentiate or in .)- (ii) Establish the
iterated Duhamel formulafor any .

- (iii) Establish the infinitely iterated Duhamel formula
- (iv) If is an matrix depending in a continuously differentiable fashion on , establish the variation formula
where is the adjoint representation applied to , and is the function

(thus for non-zero ), with defined using functional calculus.

We remark that further manipulation of (iv) of the above exercise using the fundamental theorem of calculus eventually leads to the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff-Dynkin formula, as discussed in this previous blog post.

Exercise 5Let be positive definite matrices, and let be an matrix. Show that there is a unique solution to the Sylvester equationwhich is given by the formula

In the above examples we had applied the fundamental theorem of calculus along linear curves . However, it is sometimes better to use other curves. For instance, the circular arc can be useful, particularly if and are “orthogonal” or “independent” in some sense; a good example of this is the proof by Maurey and Pisier of the gaussian concentration inequality, given in Theorem 8 of this previous blog post. In a similar vein, if one wishes to compare a scalar random variable of mean zero and variance one with a Gaussian random variable of mean zero and variance one, it can be useful to introduce the intermediate random variables (where and are independent); note that these variables have mean zero and variance one, and after coupling them together appropriately they evolve by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which has many useful properties. For instance, one can use these ideas to establish monotonicity formulae for entropy; see e.g. this paper of Courtade for an example of this and further references. More generally, one can exploit curves that flow according to some geometrically natural ODE or PDE; several examples of this occur famously in Perelman’s proof of the Poincaré conjecture via Ricci flow, discussed for instance in this previous set of lecture notes.

In some cases, it is difficult to compute or the derivative directly, but one can instead proceed by implicit differentiation, or some variant thereof. Consider for instance the matrix inversion map (defined on the open dense subset of matrices consisting of invertible matrices). If one wants to compute for close to , one can write temporarily write , thus

Multiplying both sides on the left by to eliminate the term, and on the right by to eliminate the term, one obtains

and thus on reversing these steps we arrive at the basic identity

For instance, if are matrices, and we consider the resolvents

then we have the *resolvent identity*

as long as does not lie in the spectrum of or (for instance, if , are self-adjoint then one can take to be any strictly complex number). One can iterate this identity to obtain

for any natural number ; in particular, if has operator norm less than one, one has the Neumann series

Similarly, if is a family of invertible matrices that depends in a continuously differentiable fashion on a time variable , then by implicitly differentiating the identity

in using the product rule, we obtain

and hence

(this identity may also be easily derived from (6)). One can then use the fundamental theorem of calculus to obtain variants of (6), for instance by using the curve we arrive at

assuming that the curve stays entirely within the set of invertible matrices. While this identity may seem more complicated than (6), it is more symmetric, which conveys some advantages. For instance, using this identity it is easy to see that if are positive definite with in the sense of positive definite matrices (that is, is positive definite), then . (Try to prove this using (6) instead!)

Exercise 6If is an invertible matrix and are vectors, establish the Sherman-Morrison formulawhenever is a scalar such that is non-zero. (See also this previous blog post for more discussion of these sorts of identities.)

One can use the Cauchy integral formula to extend these identities to other functions of matrices. For instance, if is an entire function, and is a counterclockwise contour that goes around the spectrum of both and , then we have

and similarly

and hence by (7) one has

similarly, if depends on in a continuously differentiable fashion, then

as long as goes around the spectrum of .

Exercise 7If is an matrix depending continuously differentiably on , and is an entire function, establish the tracial chain rule

In a similar vein, given that the logarithm function is the antiderivative of the reciprocal, one can express the matrix logarithm of a positive definite matrix by the fundamental theorem of calculus identity

(with the constant term needed to prevent a logarithmic divergence in the integral). Differentiating, we see that if is a family of positive definite matrices depending continuously on , that

This can be used for instance to show that is a monotone increasing function, in the sense that whenever in the sense of positive definite matrices. One can of course integrate this formula to obtain some formulae for the difference of the logarithm of two positive definite matrices .

To compare the square root of two positive definite matrices is trickier; there are multiple ways to proceed. One approach is to use contour integration as before (but one has to take some care to avoid branch cuts of the square root). Another to express the square root in terms of exponentials via the formula

where is the gamma function; this formula can be verified by first diagonalising to reduce to the scalar case and using the definition of the Gamma function. Then one has

and one can use some of the previous identities to control . This is pretty messy though. A third way to proceed is via implicit differentiation. If for instance is a family of positive definite matrices depending continuously differentiably on , we can differentiate the identity

to obtain

This can for instance be solved using Exercise 5 to obtain

and this can in turn be integrated to obtain a formula for . This is again a rather messy formula, but it does at least demonstrate that the square root is a monotone increasing function on positive definite matrices: implies .

Several of the above identities for matrices can be (carefully) extended to operators on Hilbert spaces provided that they are sufficiently well behaved (in particular, if they have a good functional calculus, and if various spectral hypotheses are obeyed). We will not attempt to do so here, however.

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