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The complete homogeneous symmetric polynomial {h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n)} of {n} variables {x_1,\dots,x_n} and degree {d} can be defined as

\displaystyle h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n) := \sum_{1 \leq i_1 \leq \dots \leq i_d \leq n} x_{i_1} \dots x_{i_d},

thus for instance

\displaystyle h_0(x_1,\dots,x_n) = 0,

\displaystyle h_1(x_1,\dots,x_n) = x_1 + \dots + x_n,


\displaystyle h_2(x_1,\dots,x_n) = x_1^2 + \dots + x_n^2 + \sum_{1 \leq i < j \leq n} x_i x_j.

One can also define all the complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials of {n} variables simultaneously by means of the generating function

\displaystyle \sum_{d=0}^\infty h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n) t^d = \frac{1}{(1-t x_1) \dots (1-tx_n)}. \ \ \ \ \ (1)

We will think of the variables {x_1,\dots,x_n} as taking values in the real numbers. When one does so, one might observe that the degree two polynomial {h_2} is a positive definite quadratic form, since it has the sum of squares representation

\displaystyle h_2(x_1,\dots,x_n) = \frac{1}{2} \sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2 + \frac{1}{2} (x_1+\dots+x_n)^2.

In particular, {h_2(x_1,\dots,x_n) > 0} unless {x_1=\dots=x_n=0}. This can be compared against the superficially similar quadratic form

\displaystyle x_1^2 + \dots + x_n^2 + \sum_{1 \leq i < j \leq n} \epsilon_{ij} x_i x_j

where {\epsilon_{ij} = \pm 1} are independent randomly chosen signs. The Wigner semicircle law says that for large {n}, the eigenvalues of this form will be mostly distributed in the interval {[-\sqrt{n}, \sqrt{n}]} using the semicircle distribution, so in particular the form is quite far from being positive definite despite the presence of the first {n} positive terms. Thus the positive definiteness is coming from the finer algebraic structure of {h_2}, and not just from the magnitudes of its coefficients.

One could ask whether the same positivity holds for other degrees {d} than two. For odd degrees, the answer is clearly no, since {h_d(-x_1,\dots,-x_n) = -h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n)} in that case. But one could hope for instance that

\displaystyle h_4(x_1,\dots,x_n) = \sum_{1 \leq i \leq j \leq k \leq l \leq n} x_i x_j x_k x_l

also has a sum of squares representation that demonstrates positive definiteness. This turns out to be true, but is remarkably tedious to establish directly. Nevertheless, we have a nice result of Hunter that gives positive definiteness for all even degrees {d}. In fact, a modification of his argument gives a little bit more:

Theorem 1 Let {n \geq 1}, let {d \geq 0} be even, and let {x_1,\dots,x_n} be reals.

  • (i) (Positive definiteness) One has {h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n) \geq 0}, with strict inequality unless {x_1=\dots=x_n=0}.
  • (ii) (Schur convexity) One has {h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n) \geq h_d(y_1,\dots,y_n)} whenever {(x_1,\dots,x_n)} majorises {(y_1,\dots,y_n)}, with equality if and only if {(y_1,\dots,y_n)} is a permutation of {(x_1,\dots,x_n)}.
  • (iii) (Schur-Ostrowski criterion for Schur convexity) For any {1 \leq i < j \leq n}, one has {(x_i - x_j) (\frac{\partial}{\partial x_i} - \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j}) h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n) \geq 0}, with strict inequality unless {x_i=x_j}.

Proof: We induct on {d} (allowing {n} to be arbitrary). The claim is trivially true for {d=0}, and easily verified for {d=2}, so suppose that {d \geq 4} and the claims (i), (ii), (iii) have already been proven for {d-2} (and for arbitrary {n}).

If we apply the differential operator {(x_i - x_j) (\frac{\partial}{\partial x_i} - \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j})} to {\frac{1}{(1-t x_1) \dots (1-tx_n)}} using the product rule, one obtains after a brief calculation

\displaystyle \frac{(x_i-x_j)^2 t^2}{(1-t x_1) \dots (1-tx_n) (1-t x_i) (1-t x_j)}.

Using (1) and extracting the {t^d} coefficient, we obtain the identity

\displaystyle (x_i - x_j) (\frac{\partial}{\partial x_i} - \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j}) h_d(x_1,\dots,x_n)

\displaystyle = (x_i-x_j)^2 h_{d-2}( x_1,\dots,x_n,x_i,x_j). \ \ \ \ \ (2)

The claim (iii) then follows from (i) and the induction hypothesis.

To obtain (ii), we use the more general statement (known as the Schur-Ostrowski criterion) that (ii) is implied from (iii) if we replace {h_d} by an arbitrary symmetric, continuously differentiable function. To establish this criterion, we induct on {n} (this argument can be made independently of the existing induction on {d}). If {(y_1,\dots,y_n)} is majorised by {(x_1,\dots,x_n)}, it lies in the permutahedron of {(x_1,\dots,x_n)}. If {(y_1,\dots,y_n)} lies on a face of this permutahedron, then after permuting both the {x_i} and {y_j} we may assume that {(y_1,\dots,y_m)} is majorised by {(x_1,\dots,x_m)}, and {(y_{m+1},\dots,y_n)} is majorised by {(x_{m+1},\dots,x_n)} for some {1 \leq m < n}, and the claim then follows from two applications of the induction hypothesis. If instead {(y_1,\dots,y_n)} lies in the interior of the permutahedron, one can follow it to the boundary by using one of the vector fields {(x_i - x_j) (\frac{\partial}{\partial x_i} - \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j})}, and the claim follows from the boundary case.

Finally, to obtain (i), we observe that {(x_1,\dots,x_n)} majorises {(x,\dots,x)}, where {x} is the arithmetic mean of {x_1,\dots,x_n}. But {h_d(x,\dots,x)} is clearly a positive multiple of {x^d}, and the claim now follows from (ii). \Box

If the variables {x_1,\dots,x_n} are restricted to be nonnegative, the same argument gives Schur convexity for odd degrees also.

The proof in Hunter of positive definiteness is arranged a little differently than the one above, but still relies ultimately on the identity (2). I wonder if there is a genuinely different way to establish positive definiteness that does not go through this identity.

Recently, I had tentatively announced a forthcoming result with Ben Green establishing the “Gowers inverse conjecture” (or more accurately, the “inverse conjecture for the Gowers uniformity norm”) for vector spaces {\Bbb F}_p^n over a finite field {\Bbb F}_p, in the special case when p=2 and when the function f: {\Bbb F}_p^n \to {\Bbb C} for which the inverse conjecture is to be applied is assumed to be a polynomial phase of bounded degree (thus f= e^{2\pi i P/|{\Bbb F}|}, where P: {\Bbb F}_p^n \to {\Bbb F}_p is a polynomial of some degree d=O(1)). See my FOCS article for some further discussion of this conjecture, which has applications to both polynomiality testing and to various structural decompositions involving the Gowers norm.

This conjecture can be informally stated as follows. By iterating the obvious fact that the derivative of a polynomial of degree at most d is a polynomial of degree at most d-1, we see that a function P: {\Bbb F}_p^n \to {\Bbb F}_p is a polynomial of degree at most d if and only if

\sum_{\omega_1,\ldots,\omega_{d+1} \in \{0,1\}} (-1)^{\omega_1+\ldots+\omega_{d+1}} P(x +\omega_1 h_1 + \ldots + \omega_{d+1} h_{d+1}) = 0

for all x,h_1,\ldots,h_{d+1} \in {\Bbb F}_p^n. From this one can deduce that a function f: {\Bbb F}_p^n \to {\Bbb C} bounded in magnitude by 1 is a polynomial phase of degree at most d if and only if the Gowers norm

\|f\|_{U^{d+1}({\Bbb F}_p^n)} := \bigl( {\Bbb E}_{x,h_1,\ldots,h_{d+1} \in {\Bbb F}_p^n} \prod_{\omega_1,\ldots,\omega_{d+1} \in \{0,1\}}

{\mathcal C}^{\omega_1+\ldots+\omega_{d+1}} f(x + \omega_1 h_1 + \ldots + \omega_{d+1} h_{d+1}) \bigr)^{1/2^{d+1}}

is equal to its maximal value of 1. The inverse conjecture for the Gowers norm, in its usual formulation, says that, more generally, if a function f: {\Bbb F}_p^n \to {\Bbb C} bounded in magnitude by 1 has large Gowers norm (e.g. \|f\|_{U^{d+1}} \geq \varepsilon) then f has some non-trivial correlation with some polynomial phase g (e.g. \langle f, g \rangle > c(\varepsilon) for some c(\varepsilon) > 0). Informally, this conjecture asserts that if a function has biased (d+1)^{th} derivatives, then one should be able to “integrate” this bias and conclude that the function is biased relative to a polynomial of degree d. The conjecture has already been proven for d \leq 2. There are analogues of this conjecture for cyclic groups which are of relevance to Szemerédi’s theorem and to counting linear patterns in primes, but I will not discuss those here.

At the time of the announcement, our paper had not quite been fully written up. This turned out to be a little unfortunate, because soon afterwards we discovered that our arguments at one point had to go through a version of Newton’s interpolation formula, which involves a factor of d! in the denominator and so is only valid when the characteristic p of the field exceeds the degree. So our arguments in fact are only valid in the range p > d, and in particular are rather trivial in the important case p=2; my previous announcement should thus be amended accordingly.

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