Last updated: Dec 10, 2014

Hardback, 530 pages (ISBN-13: 9780521853866; ISBN-10: 0521853869)

Paperback, 512 pages (ISBN-13: 9780521136563)

This book covers the basic tools in additive combinatorics: sum set estimates, inverse theorems, graph theory techniques, crossing numbers, algebraic methods, Szemerédi’s theorem. A revised edition is forthcoming.

- Sample chapters (contents, probabilistic method, sum set estimates, additive geometry)

— Deleted scenes —

— Precursor material —

- Gowers’ proof of Szemeredi’s theorem for progressions of length 4
- Non-commutative sum set estimates
- The Roth-Bourgain theorem
- Math 254A (some highlights of arithmetic combinatorics)
- Math 262 (Topics in Combinatorics)

— Errata —

- p. xi: Reference [116] should be [113].
- p. xiv: “Chevalley-Waring” should be “Chevalley-Warning”.
- p. 1, last display: should be .
- p. 3, after Lemma 1.2: “with probability n” should be “with probability 1”.
- p. 4, after Question 1.4, “Kleiman” should be “Kleitman”.
- p. 5: In Q. 1.1.3, should be (two occurrences). In Q. 1.1.5, and should be and respectively.
- p. 6: Exercise 1.1.8 is missing. This exercise reads: “Let be an additive set. Show that there exists a subset of cardinality such that . (Hint: translate randomly by independent elements of , and use the first moment method.)”
- p. 8: In the fourth display, should be . should be .
- p. 9: In Exercise 1.2.4, the inequality should be reversed.
- p. 11: In the paragraph after (1.17), should be .
- p. 14: In the 9th line from below, should be (two places); similarly before (1.23) on P. 15. In the final display, should be .
- p. 15: In the first display, the first sign should be .
- p. 17: In the first line, Corollary 1.8 should be Corollary 1.9. In Exercise 1.3.1, n needs to be even and needs to be odd. In Exercise 1.3.4, the first expectation should be a probability. In Exercises 1.3.5 and 1.3.6, needs to be positive.
- p.18: In Exercise 1.3.8, the expectation should be and the variance should be . In Exercise 1.3.11, should be .
- p. 21: In Definition 1.21,”we say that is a -complementary base of ” should be”we say that is a -complementary base of order of “.
- p. 22, before second display: Lemma 1.53 should be Theorem 1.53.
- p. 23: Near top: “the event that is good” should be “the event that is good”. In the last line of the proof of Lemma 1.24, should be .
- p. 24: In the last display, the third should be .
- p. 25: In the first display, should be .
- p. 36: In the first line of the proof of Theorem 1.39, add “Without loss of generality we may assume . In the third display on the last line, should be .
- p. 37: In the first display, should be |A|.
- p. 38: In the RHS of the display in Corollary 1.42 RHS of the formula, should be .
- p. 40: In the RHS of the last display should be .
- p. 41: In the first display, should be .
- p. 44: One line before the third display, should be .
- p. 47: In the penultimate equation in the proof of Proposition 1.51, the summation should be , and one should observe that the integrand vanishes for . In the last equation, should be . The last sentence of the proof should then say “Direct computation then shows that and , and the claim follows”.
- p. 57: In the bounds for , should be (two occurrences). Similarly, should be (two occurrences).
- p. 58: In Exercise 2.2.5, should be .
- p. 68: In Exercise 2.3.14, should be , and should be . Replace “though the set may be symmetric around a non-zero origin ” with “where by symmetry here we mean that ”. (The point is that might not actually exist and be unique for some groups.)
- p. 69: In Exercise 2.3.20, a square root is missing from the left-hand side.
- p. 76: In Exercise 2.4.4, Corollary 2.19 should be Corollary 2.20.
- p. 77: In Exercise 2.4.7, should be .
- p. 78: In, Exercise 2.4.11, Proposition 2.4.11 should be Proposition 2.27.
- p. 79: In (2.20), should be .
- p. 80: In the first paragraph, should be . In the second display of the proof of Lemma 2.30, the \frac{}{} should be a / (and in particular should not enclose the left-hand side of the inequality). Near top: “the iterated sum and difference sets of and ” should be the iterated sum and difference sets of and “.
- p. 82: In Exercise 2.5.3, add after . In Exercise 2.5.4, “is can be used” should be “can be used”.
- p. 85: In, Lemma 2.23, “there exists a set ” should be “there exists a set “.
- p. 86: In the first display of the proof of Lemma 2.34, should be G.
- p. 87: In the fourth display, the on the LHS and RHS should be . In the last sentence in the statement of Theorem 2.35, should be .
- p. 95: Lemma 2.41, while correct, does not imply Corollary 2.42 as stated (since does not control ). Thanks to Mei-Chu Chang for pointing out the problem. Replace “As , this implies” by “A similar argument (see [Proposition 4.5, 362]) gives”. Rename Corollary 2.42 as Proposition 2.42, replace “” by “” in the first sentence, replace “” by “” in the second sentence, and replace “” by “” in the display.
- p. 96: “verstion” should be “version”.
- p. 97: In Theorem 2.48 (ii), should be .
- p. 107: before Corollary 2.62, “Corollary 2.60” should be “Theorem 2.60”.
- p. 112, bottom: “in Section 4.4” should be “to Section 4.4”.
- p. 114, line 3: the last should be an .
- p. 115, fourth line of Lemma 3.4: should be .
- p. 116, proof of Corollary 3.6: “induce” should be “induct”. In the last two sentences of this proof, should be (three occurrences).
- p. 117, proof of Theorem 3.7: “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 118: Exercise 3.1.1 should be
- p. 120: In the second display, should be .
- p. 121, after the proof of Lemma 3.11, “an progression” should be “a progression”.
- p. 122, after first display: “for all real ” should be “for all non-negative reals “. In the next sentence, “for any integer ” should be “for any positive integer “, and “” should be ““.
- p. 123, proof of Theorem 3.13: should be . On the same line, “whch” should be “which”.
- p. 124: should be (two occurrences). In the first display and two lines further down, should be . In the second-to-last display, should be . In the last paragraph, should be .
- p. 128: In the proof of Proposition 3.19, should be . In the next paragraph, the inclusion should be , and the constraint may be relaxed to .
- p. 129: In the proof of Proposition 3.20, “induce” should be “induct”. Remove the “that” before “(using Fatou’s lemma)”. In the next display, should be .
- p. 130: In Exercise 3.4.5, “amd” should be “and”. In Exercise 3.4.6, all occurrences of should be .
- p. 131: Delete the sentence beginning with “The lower bound is trivial…” from the proof of Lemma 3.21.
- Page 132: In the statement of Lemma 3.24, one needs to add the hypothesis that all the sums in are distinct.
- p. 133: On the second display, should be . Just before the third display, should be . In Corollary 3.25, should be . In the next display, delete .
- p. 134: In Lemma 3.27, Blichtfeld should be Blichfeldt.
- p. 139: In the last display, |B| should be .
- p. 140: In the proof of Theorem 3.34, should be .
- p. 141-142: Throughout the statement and proof of Lemma 3.36, should be replaced with , and replaced with . In the last two equations in the display, replace and both by .
- p. 144: In the last pragraph of the proof of Theorem 3.38, the superfluous ) should be deleted.
- p. 145: In Theorem 3.40, replace “If and is not proper” with “If , is not proper, and is torsion-free”. In the proof, “We induce on ” should be “We induct on ”. On the last line, “unless is torsion-free” should be deleted.
- p. 147: In the second paragraph, “” should be ““.
- p. 155: In Q 4.1.7, should be . In Q 4.1.10, the range of should be rather than C.
- p. 157: In (4.14), should be .
- p. 158: In the proof of Lemma 4.10, should be . Between the second-to-last and third-to-last lines of the long display in that proof, insert the lines “” and “”.
- p. 159: In Exercise 4.2.2, “let the dual exponent” should be “let be the dual exponent”.
- p. 162: In the proof of Lemma 4.14, should be . In the third line of Corollary 4.15, should belong to rather than , and should be . (
*Remark*: the order estimate only gives the qualitative result for sufficiently large, but the small values of can be done by hand.) In the last word of the last sentence, should be . - p. 164, in Q. 4.3.10, “” should be ““.
- p. 165, bottom paragraph: “combinatorialinformation” should be “combinatorial information”.
- p. 170, proof of Lemma 4.25: should be 2, and the condition should be .
- p. 171, in Q 4.4.6, should be .
- p. 173: In the proof of Proposition 4.29, (4.31) should be (4.30). In the second and last displays, should be .
- p. 174: In the third display, should be .
- p. 175: In the four summations involving , should range over Z rather than S. After the second display, and should be and respectively, and similarly on the third display.
- p. 176: In the last display, should be .
- p. 177: In the first display, should be . In the third display, should be . In the penultimate display, should be . “If take” should be “Taking”. In the last display, should be =.
- p. 179: In Exercise 4.5.4, should be .
- p. 181: In the proof of Lemma 4.35, “incrementing k+1” should be “incrementing k”.
- p. 182, middle: “” should be ““. After the fourth display, should be . In the last display, the upper limit of the integral should be infinite.
- p. 183: In the last four displayed equations, all signs should be . In (4.38), is missing from the RHS. In the sixth display, should be .
- p. 184: In the fourth and fifth displays, should appear on the right-hand side. (Also, to avoid ambiguity, one may wish to rewrite in the fifth display as .)
- p. 185: In the proof of Proposition 4.39, should be .
- p. 186: In Proposition 4.40, can be improved to (though the existing bound is certainly correct). In the line before the last display, should be .
- p. 187: In Theorem 4.41, should be .
- p. 190: In the first display, 1/2 should be 1/6.
- p. 191: The second equality in the third line should be an inequality .
- p. 193: In the third line of the first display, should be . In the second and final displays (and in the first display of p194 and the second, third, and fourth displays in p195), should be (seven occurrences).
- p. 194: In the first display, should be . After the second display, should equal latex \delta^2$ rather than .
- p. 195, first line: should be . In the first display, should be M.
- p. 196: After the proof of Theorem 4.47, “, non-empty set E” should be “. One then considers a non-empty set E”. A few lines afterwards, “replace” should be “replaces”. In Exercise 4.7.1, should be .
- p. 200: “induce” should be “induct” (four occurrences). In the fourth line of the proof, should be .
- p. 203: the subscript should be (three occurrences).
- p. 208: In the sixth line of the last display, should be replaced by (here we use the bound ), and similarly for the seventh through ninth lines (and the tenth line should be deleted). [Update: this is slightly inaccurate, see revised erratum below.]
- p. 209: In Exercise 5.1.2, Lemma 5.1 should be Lemma 5.2. In Exercise 5.1.6, “Schirelmann” should be “Schnirelmann”.
- p. 210: In Exercise 5.1.9, should equal rather than p.
- p. 211: In the proof of Lemma 5.13, “induce” should be “induct” (two occurrences). “Frieman” should be “Freiman”.
- p. 212: In the proof of Lemma 5.14, should be .
- p. 213: In the proof of Proposition 5.15, should be , should be , and should be .
- p. 214: In the proof of Corollary 5.16, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 215, middle, “closed unit interval” should be “closed unit ball”. In the proof of Lemma 5.18, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 216, middle: “some origin ” should be “we see that contains a set symmetric around some origin “.
- p. 217: In the first paragraph, P’ should be symmetric around a rather than around a’. In the proof of Theorem 5.20, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 218, fourth line: should be . Similarly on the sixth line. Also, on that line, should be .
- p. 219: Before the third display, (5.14) should be (5.13).
- p. 221: In the first example, should be . In the fourth line of the fifth example, should be .
- p. 225: In the first line, should be . A period is missing before “Fortunately” in the sentence after the first display.
- p. 226: In Exercise 5.3.7, the range of should be rather than .
- p. 229: In the proof of Theorem 5.30, Corollary 2.23 should be Lemma 5.26. In the last line of this proof, P should be Frieman isomorphic to Q, rather than to P. In Lemma 5.31, should be .
- p. 230: In the first display, should be . In the second display, should be .
- p. 231: In the fifth line, should be . In Theorem 5.33, the hypothesis should be included, and the first paragraph of the proof of Theorem 5.33 should be deleted. Throughout this proof, should be .
- p. 236: In Proposition 5.41, “Frieman” should be “Freiman”. In Corollary 5.42, K should be d.
- p. 237: In Exercise 5.5.1, Hom should be .
- p. 240: In Theorem 5.44, “Then there a” should be “Then there is a”
- p. 241: The end of proof box on the fourth line should be moved to the end of the first paragraph in page 244.
- p. 243: In the last line, should be .
- p. 247: In Exercise 6.1.2, “symmetruc” should be “symmetric”, and one should assume .
- p. 248: In Exercise 6.1.4, the denominator should be .
- p. 249: In the second line from the bottom, Ruzsa[297] should be Ruzsa[303].
- p. 250: In the first display, should be r (and in the previous line, should have radius rather than r).
- p. 253: In Remark 6.8, “We say that S” should be “We say that S is”.
- p. 255: In the proof of Theorem 6.9, “induce” should be “induct”, “vacuoust” should be “vacuous”, and “(with )” should be deleted. “” should be ““. Shortly afterwards, “latter” should be “former”.
- p. 256: In the proof of Corollary 6.12, “induce” should be “induct”, and “ contains a” should be “ contains an” (two occurrences). “complete the induction and than the proof” should be “closes the induction and completes the proof”.
- p. 257: In the first line, “ monochromatic” should be “-monochromatic”. In Theorem 6.15, should be . In Proposition 6.16, should be , “exists distinct classes” should be “exist distinct classes”, and “” should be “non-zero “. In the proof of Proposition 6.16, “induce” should be “induct”, and “inducing” should be “inducting”.
- p. 258: In the last paragraph of the proof of Proposition 6.16, should be .
- p. 259, first paragraph: “the bound…which follow…are” should be “the bound…which follows…is”. “being of growing” should be “growing”.
- p. 260, in Exercise 6.3.3, should be .
- p. 263: In the statement of Corollary 6.20, the in the denominator in the last line should be . In the second paragraph of the proof. the denominator should be .
- p. 264: In the second paragraph, the denominator should be . In the penultimate display, should be . In the proof of Corollary 6.20, should be (two occurrences), and should be (one occurrence). In the proof of Theorem 2.29, should be (four occurrences).
- p. 265: In Theorem 6.21, the first “then” should be an “and”. In the third display, should be .
- p. 268: In the first line, “smallest” should be “largest”. In the line before Example 6.26, the right parenthesis should be deleted. In the fifth paragraph, should be .
- p. 271: In the last paragraph of 6.5.2, should be (two occurrences).
- p. 272, first display: should be .
- p. 276: In the first bullet point, “can occur” should be “is”. In the second sentence after these bullet points, “has” should be “have”.
- p. 278: In the proof of Corollary 7.4, should be . In the proof of Lemma 7.6, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 279: In the third paragraph, Theorem 6.31 should be Theorem 6.32.
- p. 280: In Exercise 7.1.4, Proposition 7.9 should be Lemma 7.9. In Exercise 7.1.1, Lemma 7.3 should be Lemma 7.2.
- p. 286: In the first display, there should be no m on the LHS.
- p. 289: In the third line, should be .
- p. 290: In the display before (7.4), should be .
- p. 292: In Exercise 7.3.2, should be .
- p. 294: In statement of Proposition 7.21, add “Furthermore, each of the lies in the set “.
- p. 295: After the third display, the s should be s.
- p. 298: In the last paragraph, should be .
- p. 300: In the fourth line of the proof of Corollary 7.28, should be (two occurrences).
- p. 308: In the third paragraph, Andrew’s should be Andrews’.
- p. 309: In the second paragraph, the accent on Szemerédi is misplaced. The proof of Theorem 8.1 (as well as the explicit choice of constants) is due to Chazelle, Sharir, and Welzl (see M. Aigner and G. Ziegler, Proofs from the Book, Springer-Verlag,

Heidelberg, (2004), viii+239 pp.) - p. 310: In the second display, should be .
- p. 312: In the dual formulation of Corollary 8.5, there is a “:” missing in the set notation.
- p. 314: In Ex 8.2.6, “exactly two points” should be “at least two points”. (It is however an interesting question as to whether the exercise is correct as stated.) In Exercise 8.2.10, a-a should be a-a’.
- p. 316: In Theorem 8.15, should be (two occurrences).
- p. 318: On the sixth line, a right parenthesis is missing in .
- p. 322: In (8.6) should be .
- p. 324: In Exercise 8.4.3, should be .
- p. 325: Exercise 8.4.7 is heuristically correct, but the rigorous implementation of this exercise is somewhat subtle; see this post for details.
- p. 330: In the proof of Theorem 9.2, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 331: After the end of the proof, “Combinatorial Nullstelensatz” should be “combinatorial Nullstellensatz”.
- p. 332: In Exercise 9.1.2, the in should be . In Exercise 9.1.3, the Hilbert nullstellensatz of course only applies when F is algebraically closed. In Exercise 9.1.4, should be .
- p. 333: In Lemma 9.3, should be .
- p. 338: In the proof of Theorem 9.11, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 341: In Question 9.2.6, should be .
- p. 342: In Theorem 9.17, should be , and should be . In the last sentence of the proof of Theorem 9.16, “” should be ““.
- p. 343: In the first display, the right-hand side should just be . In the next paragraph, should be , and in the paragraph after that, should be . In the first line of the last display, should be . In Lemma 9.18, the second sentence should start “Then” rather than “The”. In the 5th line (the line before 2nd display) should be .
- p. 344: In proof of Corollary 9.19, “the multiplicatively invertible” should be “the set of multiplicatively invertible”. After the end of the proof of Lemma 9.18, “additive group” should be “an additive group”. In Theorem 9.20, “be power of ” should be “be a power of “.
- p. 345: In Exercise 9.3.3, “Let ” should be “Set “, and should be .
- p. 348: In the proof of Theorem 9.24, should be .
- p. 350: In Lemma 9.27, should be .
- p. 352-353: In the proof of Lemma 9.31: all occurrences of should be , etc. Also, should be . In Theorem 9.32, [266] should be [267]. In Exercise 9.5.3, should be .
- p. 354: Right before Theorem 9.36, “made a significant progress” should be “made significant progress”. In the third line of Exercise 9.5.4, should be . In the RHS of (9.14), should be . Right after Theorem 9.36, should be .
- p. 355: In Remark 9.38, “combining” should be “combined”. In the first display, should be . In the last sentence of the proof of Theorem 9.36, should be .
- p. 356: In Exercise 9.6.3, should be , and “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 358: In the 3rd display should be .
- p. 362, bottom line: “as follows” should be “are as follows”.
- p. 363, middle: delete “and using Exercise 9.4.1”. Somewhat further down, should just be .
- p. 364, in the proof of Lemma 9.48, “least common multiple” should be “greatest common divisor”.
- p. 365: In Theorem 9.5.2, add the condition “ is nonzero”.
- p. 366: In the last line of the proof of Theorem 9.53, max should be min. In the first paragraph of the proof of Corollary 9.54, “keeping fixed” should be “keeping fixed”.
- p. 367: In Exercise 9.8.3 should be (two occurrences).
- p. 368: In Exercise 9.8.8, delete “, and let be distinct integers in “. In the second display of Exercise 9.8.11, the sup should be an inf.
- p. 370: In Examples 10.3, should be . In Theorem 10.5, the phrase “… with coprime to ” should be added at the end of the first sentence.
- p. 371: In Exercise 10.0.4, Exercise 6.3.7 should be Theorem 6.17. In the third line of Exercise 10.0.5, “color class” should be “color classes”.
- p. 375: In the second and third displays, should be . In the line afterwards, (4.3) should be (4.2).
- p. 376: In the second line before the exercises, one of the “that”s should be removed.
- p. 377: In Exercise 10.1.6, “aproper” should be “a proper”.
- p. 378: Corollary 10.10 should be Proposition 10.10, and similarly in page 380.
- p. 379: In the third display of the proof of Lemma 10.15, should be . In the third line of the proof of Theorem 10.12 (which should be Proposition 10.12), should be . In the second line of the proof of Theorem 10.12, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 380: In the proof of Proposition 10.17, “induce” should be “induct”. In the line after the top display, it should say “” rather than ““.
- p. 381: In the second line, should be . (In the next two displays, the 4 is correct.) In the third line, add “and in ” just before “, such that”. In the third and fourth displays, should be .
- p. 382: in the paragraph after statement of Theorem 10.20: replace” and ” with just ““.
- p. 383: in the third display, the first = sign should be , while should be |.
- p. 384: in Lemma 10.22, needs to be between 0 and 1.
- p. 385: in third display, should be , and similarly on the next two lines. In the next display, the sum should be enclosed in parentheses.
- p. 386: Exercise 10.2.1 is redundant (being essentially the union of 10.0.8 and 10.0.11) and should be deleted.
- p. 387: In the first line, Theorem 10.12 should be Proposition 10.12; in the fourth line, Corollary 10.10 should be Proposition 10.10.
- p. 388, fifth line of proof of Lemma 10.25: insert “, since” after “On the other hand”. In the third-to-last line, “the sum” should be “the summand”.
- p. 389: in top line, “ is bounded” should be “ is bounded by 1″. In third line, should be . In Exercise 10.3.1, add the hint “(You may want to first establish the weaker but easier bound .)”
- p. 390: In Proposition 10.28, one should have rather than .
- p. 391: The conclusion of Lemma 10.29 should be rather than (one wants a density increment, not a density decrement). To get this, one has to add “also, observe that the expression inside the norm has mean zero” just before the final display, replace the norm on the final display with a supremum (with no absolute values), and remove the absolute values on the first display of the next page.
- p. 394: In the second, third, and fourth display, the indicator functions should be applied to x instead of r. Also, in the fourth equation, should be .
- p. 398: About half-way down on the page, “to be introduce” should be “to be introduced”.
- p. 402: in the last two displays, should be .
- p. 407: In Remark 10.44, “Gowers shown” should be “Gowers has shown”.
- p. 418: In “choices of “, the parenthesis should be deleted.
- p. 439: In the second line, should be . In the fourth line, should be . In the proof of Proposition 11.12, “induce” should be “induct”.
- p. 454: In the line before Theorem 11.27, the brackets \{ \} around are missing.
- p. 462: In the last line, “in” should be .
- p. 465: “and some k-pseudorandom measure , then” should be “for some k-pseudorandom measure . Then”.
- p. 474: In the proof of Lemma 12.6, “induce” should be “induct”. In Theorem 12.5, “constants” should be “constant”.
- p. 500: In [288], “arithemtic” should be “arithmetic”.
- p. 503: Reference [352] should be redirected to [380].
- p. 505: should be , and O(f(n)) needs to be in math mode.
- p. 506: “Chevalley-Waring” should be “Chevalley-Warning”, and Blichtfeld should be Blichfeldt.

— Errata to the revised edition —

- p. 12. In Example 1.12, “Legendre’s theorem” should be “Lagrange’s theorem”.
- p. 16. In the final display, should be . On the next line, “Corollary 1.10 (or Corollary 1.8)” should read “Corollary 1.9”.
- p.17. In Exercise 1.3.4, should be .
- p.18. In Exercise 1.3.10, add “with not both equal to ” before the first comma.
- p. 23: In (1.30), third summation, should be .
- p. 30. In the third display, should be (say), and the third equality should be a sign.
- p. 35, first line: a right parenthesis ) missing before .
- p. 36-37: The proof of Theorem 1.39 requires a number of significant changes. After the first paragraph, add “We will show first that with probability 1, that any natural number has at most a bounded number of representations as the sum of elements of between and ; the treatment of the remaining sums in which at least one term is less than is left as an exercise.” Then, in the definition of and also in the computation of , insert the lower bound in the sum. On the first line of page 37, and in Exercise 1.7.2, replace with for some . Extend Exercise 1.7.2 by adding “Then complete the proof of Theorem 1.39 by using similar arguments to treat the contribution of sums in which some of the summands have size less than for some sufficiently small , by using an induction hypothesis to bound the number of representations by sums of fewer than elements of size less than .”
- p. 42: Exercise 1.8.1 contains a number of inaccuracies (namely, “” should be “, and “no two elements” should be “no two
*distinct*elements” (and so should really be here)), and is in any case a consequence of Theorem 6.2, and so should probably be deleted (it is rather difficult to establish this exercise with the tools developed up to that point). - p. 45: After equation (1.45), the assertion should instead be , where is the logarithmic integral.
- p.54: After the proof of Lemma 2.1, “Corollary 5.13” should be “Lemma 5.13”.
- p. 58: In Exercise 2.2.6, should be . (This error is not present in the first edition.)
- p.62: In (2.7), after Definition 2.8, should be .
- p. 63: In the sixth line of the first display, should be .
- p. 66: In Exercise 2.3.2, should be .
- p. 83: In Exercise 2.5.5, the small K case is somewhat more difficult than the hint suggests, since if for some small then a direct application of Exercise 2.5.4 will give losses of rather than . One way to proceed is to first use the lossy argument, apply Exercise 2.4.4 to locate a relevant finite group, and then use ad hoc arguments to refine the error. In Exercises 2.5.6 and 2.5.7, the reference [80] should instead be to “G. Elekes, I. Ruzsa, The structure of sets with few sums along a graph”,
*J. Combin. Theory Ser. A*113 (2006), no. 7, 1476–1500. Finally, in Exercise 2.5.7, the graph G should be assumed to be symmetric. - p. 100: In Corollary 2.52, A should be assumed to be a finite subset, rather than a finite subfield.
- p. 104: the last paragraph here (from “Now let …” onwards) can be deleted, and replaced by the much shorter “Since and contains both 0 and 1, we have “.
- p. 116: In the proof of Corollary 3.6, should be , and “for some ” should be “for some .
- p. 118: In the proof of Corollary 3.9, some explanation should be added as to why the torsion group is finite. This follows first from the observation that any subgroup of a finitely generated abelian group is also finitely generated (this follows from viewing the group as the image of a lattice and using Lemma 3.4), and that finitely generated abelian torsion groups are finite (because there are only finitely many distinct ways to combine the generators together).
- p. 121: After Lemma 3.11, “exponentially in |A|” should be “exponentially in K”.
- p. 128: In the proof of 3.19, the normalisation should not be used; instead, one should normalise (and the comment that it suffices to show should be deleted). The second display should then be restricted to the range (note that Lemma 3.18 requires all sets involved to be non-empty), and one should also mention the weighted arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality at the end of the proof.
- p. 142: In the proof of Lemma 3.36, and should be and respectively (for consistency).
- p. 131: In the second paragraph of the proof of Lemma 3.21, “translates of ” should be “translates of “.
- p. 132: In Lemma 3.23, the hypothesis that the cosets for are disjoint should be added.
- p. 133: The Kronecker approximation theorem should more accurately be called a simultaneous Dirichlet approximation theorem.
- p. 134: In the first line, “with” should be “within”.
- p. 135: In the definition of , should be .
- p. 154: In display (4.9) there is a full stop missing.
- p. 155: In Exercise 4.1.7, should be . In Exercise 4.1.8, should be .
- p. 158: In the proof of Lemma 4.10, in the final display, the last equals sign should be a sign. An additional sentence of explanation should be added: “The penultimate inequality follows from Plancherel’s theorem, followed by Minkowski’s inequality to estimate the norm of f.”
- p. 163: In Exercise 4.3.4, “is contained in a coset” should read “is a coset”. In Exercise 4.3.14, Polya should be Pólya (and similarly for the corresponding entry in the index). In Exercise 4.3.2, should be . In the discussion of Lemma 4.16,the term in the approximation for after the display should be deleted.
- p. 168-169: Before Proposition 4.23, “dispense with” should be “almost dispense with”. In Proposition 4.23, the proper progression should be the proper coset progression , where is a subgroup of (i.e. the multiples of for some factor of ). The last sentence of the proposition is redundant and can be deleted. In the proof, one first handles the case when has order in , in which case the first display of p.169 is an equality, and one obtains a progression of rank . In the general case, when has order for some dividing , one then passes from to by quotienting out the group generated by , and then applies the previous case.
- p. 170: In the proof of Lemma 4.25, “find thus find” should be “thus find”.
- p. 171: In Exercise 4.4.7, “lower” should be “increase”.
- p. 174: In Remark 4.31, the sentence “The converse statement is true up to logarithmic factors; see exercises.” should be deleted.
- p. 176-177: The denominator in (4.34) can be improved to , by setting equal to instead of in page 177 (changing the fourth and fifth displays appropriately).
- p. 180: Exercise 4.5.11 does not work as stated and should be deleted.
- p. 181: In Lemma 4.35, add “ is an integer, ” after “where”. In the proof, “incrementing ” should be “incrementing to “. “all dissociated subsets of ” should be “all dissociated subsets of “.
- p. 183: In the statement of Lemma 4.37, the second “an” should be “a”.
- p. 187: In the statement of Theorem 4.41, the upper bound for should be rather than just .
- p. 188: At the end of the proof of Theorem 4.41, add the following parenthetical remark: “The upper bound on required for Corollary 2.62 is supplied by (4.37) and the lower bound on .” In Exercise 4.6.2: should be (two occurrences).
- p. 189: In the discussion after Theorem 4.42, the bound should be $latex E(A,A) >= P(A) |A|^3$.
- p. 191: In the third equation of the display, the norms should be (and the final term should just be .
- p. 193: Lemma 4.46 has a redundant “such that”.
- p. 194: In Theorem 4.47, the should be , and should be .
- p.196: A right parenthesis is missing after the reference to Green [149]. In the penultimate line in the proof of Theorem 4.47, as well as in the sentence immediately after this proof, and in the second sentence on page 197, should be .
- p. 199: In the second sentence in the paragraph before the statement of Lemma 5.3, “Lemma” should be uncapitalised.
- p. 201: In the second-t0-last displayed equation, should be .
- p. 208: The sixth line of the long display should be (here we use ). The seventh line should be . The eighth line should be . The final line remains as (here we again use ).
- p. 211: In the statement of Lemma 5.13, “let suppose” should be just “suppose”.
- p. 226: In Exercise 5.3.4, the hypothesis “” is missing.
- p. 236: In the proof of Proposition 5.41, all occurrences of should be .
- p. 239: The example in Exercise 5.5.17 is incorrect; the set should be in , where is the standard basis and one adopts the convention ; “quadrilateral” should be “pentagon” and and should be replaced by throughout.
- p. 241: In the last line of the first display in the proof of Lemma 5.45, should be .
- p. 249: In the second paragraph of the proof of Theorem 6.2, all occurrences of should be .
- p. 254: In exercise 6.2.8, the adjective “triangle-free” should be deleted.
- p. 271: In Section 6.5.2, should be (two occurrences).
- p. 273: In Exercise 6.4.2, “Claim 6.31 and Claim 6.4” should be “equations (6.3) and (6.4)”.
- p. 279: In Proposition 7.7, should be .
- p. 281: In the last paragraph, “ is odd” should be “ is odd”.
- p. 285: Corollary 5.25 should be Lemma 5.25.
- p. 286: In the second paragraph, the condition should be replaced by , and the phrase “by Markov’s inequality” should be dropped. Similarly, in the third and fifth displays, the first occurrence of in each should be .
- p. 291: In the definition of after the first display, a is needed at the end of the integral. In the first paragraph, add “but still bounded” after “sufficiently large”.
- p. 292: In Exercise 7.3.4, the comma should be an apostrophe.
- p. 293: should be elements of rather than . In Example 7.19, “which have volume” should be “which has volume”.
- p. 294: After the first proof of (7.20), “lower dimension its” should be “lower its dimension”.
- p. 299: In the first display, should be .
- p. 313: In Theorem 8.10, “at most lines” should be “at most curves”.
- p. 315: In the proof of Theorem 8.14, should be .
- p. 316: In the third to last line, should be .
- p. 331: In the third and fifth displays, the summation should run up to rather than . In the proof of Theorem 9.2, should be .
- p. 333: In the proof of Lemma 9.3, “P vanishes on contains” should be “P vanishes on a set which contains”.
- p. 346: “Cauchy’s theorem” should be “Lagrange’s theorem”.
- p. 358: In the second display of the proof of Lemma 9.43, should be .
- p. 370: In the last paragraph, the reference “Meshulam [248]” should instead be “Brown and Buhler [BB] (see also Frankl, Graham, and Rodl [FGR]”, where [BB] is “T. C. Brown and J. C. Buhler, Lines imply spaces in density Ramsey theory, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 36 (1984), 214-220.”, and [FGR] is “P. Frankl, R. Graham, and V. Rodl, On subsets of abelian groups with no 3-term arithmetic progresion, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 45 (1987), 157-161.”
- p. 388: In Lemma 10.25, there should be no absolute value signs around . In the last display, should be , and in the first display on page 389, should be .
- p. 388, 390-391: The Kronecker approximation theorem should more accurately be called a simultaneous Dirichlet approximation theorem.
- p. 391: In Lemma 10.29, should be , there should be an additional hypothesis of . The bound should be , and the bound should be . In the third display of the proof, the right-hand side of 1 should be , and in the fifth display, the right-hand side should be .
- p. 397: In Exercise 10.4.2, Lemma 10.15 should be Lemma 10.29.
- p. 412: In the second case of Corollary 10.50 the word ‘and’ should be inserted.
- p. 414: In the first paragraph, “motivation” should be “motivations”.
- p. 465: In the definition of , should be ; also, on the last line, “to order to” should be “in order to”.
- p. 477: In the top line, “an positive” should be “a positive”.
- p. 492: [98] and [100] refer to the same article; [98] should be deleted and redirected to [100].

Thanks to Eric Aas, Andrea, Louigi Addario-Berry, Khodakhast Bibak, Thomas Bloom, Lin Bo, Richard Brent, Tom Brown, Andres Caicedo, Rafael Tesoro Carretero, Kestutis Cesnavicius, Mei-Chu Chang, Sheng-Fu Chiu, David Colvert, Paul Delhanty, Moubariz Garaev, Stephen Ge, Paul Hagelstein, Le Thai Hoang, Tom Koornwinder, Jarek Kuben, Pham Lam, Choongbum Lee, Mark Lewko, Victor Lie, Isabel Lugo, Freddie Manners, Heiko Mattern, Vicky Neale, Danny Nguyen, Lam Pham, Gyan Prakash, Juanjo Rué, Sean, Tomer Shalev, Olof Sisask, Justin W. Smith, Srivastan, Thomas, Sam van Gool, Marco Vitturi, and Mate Weirdl for corrections.

## 184 comments

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1 February, 2013 at 10:19 am

Small doubling in groups « What’s new[…] much detail the proof techniques used in these results (although the abelian case is discussed in this book of mine with Vu, and the nonabelian case discussed in this more recent book of mine), but instead focuses on the […]

16 March, 2013 at 5:28 pm

Jarek KubenIn the proof of Theorem 9.2, page 331, 15th line, should be t_{n-1}^{d_{n-1}} instead of t_{n-1}^{d_{n}-1}.

[Added, thanks – T.]7 June, 2013 at 2:49 am

Tomer Shalevpage 163: after “(for instance)” if we set A = Z … ||z||_u should be zero, but instead, what is written is ||B||_u = tao*Z + O(…) , (tao*Z should be canceled I believe).

[Corrected, thanks – T.]17 July, 2013 at 6:32 am

RexOn page 4: “Theorem 1.3 was proved by Erdos in 1965 [86]. Several years later, Bourgain [37] used harmonic analysis arguments to improve the bound slightly.”

It seems that a better description might be: “Three decades later, Bourgain used….”

18 July, 2013 at 9:51 am

RexJust so you know, the .dvi file on entropy sumset methods has some formulas that run completely off the page (so they are not visible)

19 July, 2013 at 2:10 am

Rexp. 14: In the last display, the first sign should be . (just as with pg. 15)

19 July, 2013 at 2:12 am

RexOh, nevermind. My mistake

4 November, 2013 at 1:48 pm

Real stable polynomials and the Kadison-Singer problem | What's new[…] as the second moment method, exponential moment method, and zeroth moment method, see Chapter 1 of my book with Van Vu. For a general discussion of the probabilistic method, see the book by Alon and Spencer of the same […]

4 February, 2014 at 7:01 pm

Szemerédi’s Theorem Part I – Equivalent formulations | I Can't Believe It's Not Random![…] Szemerédi used a complicated combinatorial argument. Two years later Furstenberg provided a different proof of this result, using ergodic theory and a correspondence principle which allows one to derive conclusions about sets of integers by studying dynamics on certain measure spaces. It should also be mentioned that a third proof of the Szemerédi’s Theorem was discovered by Gowers in 2001, generalizing Roth’s harmonic analysis proof of the existence of progressions of length in a set of positive density, to progressions of arbitrary length and having the advantage of providing concrete bounds for the finitistic version. More recently a number of different proofs appeared. A good discussion on the different proofs and similarities between them can be found on chapters 10 and 11 of the Tao and Vu’s book. […]

19 March, 2014 at 5:30 pm

Metric entropy analogues of sum set theory | What's new[…] estimates (which are covered, incidentally, in Section 2 of my book with Van Vu) are particularly useful for controlling finite sets of small doubling, in the sense that for […]

23 March, 2014 at 6:55 am

Anonymouscan any one please explain me the concept of “uniformly chosen random subset of a unit interval of cardinality N”.??

[One can for instance choose a random set where each of the are chosen independently and uniformly from (one can enforce the constraint if one wishes, but it is not necessary as one ends up with the same distribution of a random variable in either case. -T.]27 April, 2014 at 12:45 pm

GeorgeOn page 128 Proposition 3.19, one should have

(as opposed to the containment going the other way). Also, just above this, it may be more clear to write let be arbitary as opposed to let be arbitrary, to emphasize that one may take , but must be avoided to assure that the sets we wish to apply Lemma 3.18 to are nonempty.

[Corrected, thanks – T.]14 August, 2014 at 9:04 am

Marco VitturiDear Prof. Tao,

in the final lines of the proof of Freiman’s 3k-3 Theorem (page 208) it appears that the inequality is used reversed, and I can’t see how the relative errata above can fix this. Am I wrong?

[Gah, the previous erratum was not applied correctly. I’ve now supplied a revised erratum in the second errata list. -T.]27 October, 2014 at 7:28 pm

LamExample 1.12 p.12, “the squares are known to be a basis of order 4 (Legendre’s Theorem)” shouldn’t it be “Lagrange’s Theorem”? (4-square theorem)

[Correction added, thanks – T.]12 November, 2014 at 12:41 pm

LamDear Terry,

On page 294, after the very first proof (of 7.20), it says “however one can lower dimension its by increasing”, probably instead of “lower its dimension by increasing”.

[Correction added, thanks – T.]18 November, 2014 at 2:09 pm

LamDear Terry,

on page 281, last paragraph it says “we can reduce further to the case that $Z$ is odd”, which should probably read “$|Z|$ is odd” or “the order of $Z$ is odd”?

PS: I do not know if it is actually useful to report such minor typos?

[Correction added, thanks -T.]19 November, 2014 at 1:50 pm

Lamp. 293: $v_1,\hdots,v_n$ should probably be elements of $P$ instead of $V$ (volume).

p. 285: Corollary 5.25 should be Lemma 5.25.

[Correction added, thanks – T.]19 November, 2014 at 1:52 pm

LamExample 7.19 p. 293: takes values in the generalized arithmetic progression $nP$ which have volume $n^dV$ (“which has”)

[Correction added, thanks – T.]19 November, 2014 at 2:33 pm

LamIn the proof of Lemma 4.35 p.181, it says “we are left with a remainder $R$ where all dissociated subsets of $S$ have cardinality $d$ or less”. Should $S$ be replaced with $R$?

[Correction added, thanks – T.]10 December, 2014 at 5:58 am

Freddie MannersDear Prof Tao,

On p241, proof of Lemma 5.45, last line of the first displayed equation: I think

should read

as an estimate on the binomial coefficient.

[Correction added, thanks – T.]10 December, 2014 at 6:25 am

Freddie MannersDear Prof Tao,

On p239, exercise 5.5.17: I don’t think this example works. The problem is that the midpoints of the quadrilateral , , , themselves form a parallelogram, and this rules out any non-standard Freiman homomorphisms to .

Replacing the generic quadrilateral with a generic pentagon in should fix it, I think, giving a universal ambient group of .

(Also, I think there is a typo

on the penultimate line: the first “2” should be a “4”.)

[Correction added, thanks – T.]25 February, 2015 at 5:19 am

QuoraAre there any fields of mathematics that incorporate both Combinatorics and Number Theory?Yes. The definition of mathematical fields is very fuzzy, but there are many questions which seem to belong to both “Number Theory” and “Combinatorics”. For example: in how many ways can a positive integer be represented as a sum of four integer sq…

16 June, 2015 at 1:11 pm

tomer shalevHello Professor Tao.

I am getting back to my thesis,

and was wondering about the solution of

exercise 2.1.1.

– how is it possible to come up with a uniform probability

function over the an infinite set of real numbers??

– what am I missing?

all the best

Tomer Shalev

[The exercise is referring to Lebesgue measure on the unit interval [0,1], which is a probability measure. -T.]17 June, 2015 at 6:15 am

Tomer shalevCan you please lay a sketch?

17 June, 2015 at 6:25 am

Tomer shalevThe probability to choose a number is zero according to the Lebesgue measure. And the number of representation of a number is maximized when the two sets differences only share zero element. Since differences have mostly non zero measure, but still u have non countable collection of pair wise numbers that have the same difference x = a-b.

[Uncountable sets can still have zero measure. For instance, the set has zero two-dimensional Lebesgue measure for any given number . -T.]3 July, 2015 at 2:38 pm

tomer shalevHi Professor Tao. Regarding your comment at page 161, before the proof of lemma 4.13:

– you wrote that that P(A_1)***P(A_n) is the quantity one would

expect if random selection is involved conditioning on x =a_1 + .. + a_n,

restricted to these random sets.

– essentially meaning, that the representation function at a fixed point

is expected to be P(A_1)***P(A_n)*(|Z|^(n-1)) restricted to these sets.

the first part of P(A_1)***P(A_n) is understood, but the last part (|Z|^(n-1))

would describe the representation function at a fixes point where solutions

are unconditioned. I find it hard to believe and follow this claim.

please clarify, it is important for me to understand.

T

4 July, 2015 at 7:56 am

Terence TaoFor any fixed , the number of solutions to with is , because can be arbitrary elements of , and then is forced to be .

19 July, 2015 at 8:18 am

tomer shalevHi Prof Tao.

I have a question:

– page 163, exercise 4.3.4 : I understand how to prove it if the group is cyclic.

– does the fact, that the group has bilinear form that indues a isomorpism means, that this is always the case ( because the circle group is cyclic)?

all the best

Tomer

20 July, 2015 at 8:22 pm

A nonstandard analysis proof of Szemeredi’s theorem | What's new[…] is basically thanks to an averaging argument of Varnavides; see for instance Chapter 11 of my book with Van Vu or this previous blog post for a discussion. We have removed the cases as they are trivial and […]

26 August, 2015 at 2:44 pm

A timeline of the polynomial method up-to combinatorial nullstellensatz | Anurag's Math Blog[…] Terence Tao and Van Vu, Chapter 9 in Additive Combinatorics. […]

31 August, 2015 at 2:27 pm

LamDear Terry,

I think there is a minor correction to add p.249 in the proof of Theorem 6.2. It says that “there are only elements of larger than ” but with the ordering, I think it should be . Then for all , and the following sum. Of course the result is the same though.

[Correction added, thanks – T.]22 January, 2016 at 12:28 pm

Incidences Outside of Discrete Geometry – Some Plane Truths[…] led to a variety of results in additive combinatorics that rely on incidences. Tao and Vu’s additive combinatorics book contains a full chapter that is dedicated to incidences. Konyagin and Shkredov’s recent […]