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I’ve had a number of people ask me (especially in light of some recent publicity) exactly what “compressed sensing” means, and how a “single pixel camera” could possibly work (and how it might be advantageous over traditional cameras in certain circumstances). There is a large literature on the subject, but as the field is relatively recent, there does not yet appear to be a good non-technical introduction to the subject. So here’s my stab at the topic, which should hopefully be accessible to a non-mathematical audience.
For sake of concreteness I’ll primarily discuss the camera application, although compressed sensing is a more general measurement paradigm which is applicable to other contexts than imaging (e.g. astronomy, MRI, statistical selection, etc.), as I’ll briefly remark upon at the end of this post.